Top Questions For Video Production Studio
Here are some of the top questions we get at the video studio about video production, editing, web optimization, and photography. If your question isn't answered here, please contact us and we will answer it!
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How Much Will It Cost to Shoot a Video for My Law Firm?
Technically, anyone with a smartphone can shoot a video and upload it to YouTube with a per-video cost of literally pennies. Practically, though, producing a bare-bones video for your law firm's website will do more harm than good. After all, potential clients want to see that you have resources at your disposal, not that you're excessively cheap. The good news is that the money you spend on professional video production equipment is a long-term investment, since you can use it to make multiple videos over the course of months or years.
At Gearshift, we recommend that law firms invest about $5,000 in video equipment, which breaks down roughly as follows: $1,500 for a camera with high video resolution, $1,500 for professional video editing software, and a few hundred dollars apiece for lenses, lights, microphones, and tripods. With this equipment (and, of course, a compelling script), you'll be able to shoot a video that stands its own against the YouTube competition. Of course, if you don't have the time, resources, expertise, or desire to shoot your own videos, Gearshift will be glad to work with you to produce the kind of clips that attract paying clients!
Is there a green screen studio near Washington, DC?
Yes, there is – and we run it! Located in Fairfax, Virginia, our 1,000-square-foot green screen studio is available to business of all sizes for any number of visual projects, including information videos, commercials, online marketing projects, and short films. Our on-site video production team, top-of-the-line equipment, and years of video experience will ensure that your final product is professional, original, and to your standards.
A green screen studio allows videographers to impose a new background behind actors, creating an infinite number of options for those seeking cost-efficient, high-quality, fast, and creative videos. Many companies choose to film on a green screen to save money, expand their options, and simplify the filming process.
Would you like to schedule your shoot in our green screen studio in DC? Call Gearshift today to speak with one of our video experts – our calendar fills up fast. We can help you with all aspects of your project, from video equipment to finding spokesmodels to perfecting your script.
Want to see some of our work before giving us a call? Check out our video gallery for some recent examples of web videos, commercials, music videos, and more. And be sure to check out our green screen video examples.
How big is your green screen studio?
Our green screen studio is 1,000 square feet, 20ft x 20ft. More than enough room for your web video advertisements and informational videos!
How can I make my web videos interactive?
One of the best ways to increase viewership among your Web video content is to make your videos interactive. Viewers respond to content when they are engaged in that content, or when they are involved in the way the content plays out.
Depending on your objective, you can choose to make your video content either slightly or highly interactive. Users can allow viewers to choose the ending to their video content, or simply link the video to similar content to increase views.
Check out some examples of how Internet users are engaging viewers with interactive web video. You can even use YouTube Annotations to create interactivity within your content (see “YouTube Electric Guitar”):
Top 10 Interactive YouTube Videos
Using YouTube Annotations to create interactive content is easy. Simply load your content into YouTube and choose the “Edit Annotations”, then “Spotlight Annotation” (rectangle box with corners outlined) as many times as you’d like to create viewer choices within your video content.
Users can include Annotations in many other ways as well- as a call to action (encourage viewers to subscribe to your channel, watch more of your content, etc.), as a link to various YouTube content, add information about your video and more.
What types of spokesmodels do you have?
We have several talented individuals that are more than willing to deliver your message for you if you can’t come to the studio yourself, or if you just happen to suffer from stage fright. All of our spokesmodels have prior acting experience in television, advertisements and movies and are highly skilled in conveying any persona you wish to portray. For more information on our spokesmodels, visit our spokesmodel page or feel free to call us at 1.887.477.STUDIO.
What are the benefits of having a green screen?
Using green screen, or chroma key technology, is beneficial in many ways. Using a green screen allows the filmmaker to layer any background with the subject being filmed or photographed. The subject is filmed against the green (sometimes blue) background, which is replaced in post-production by a digitally generated background.
Besides the most palpable advantage to using a green screen, that is, the ability to produce essentially any setting in a controlled environment (green screen studio), there are a number of additional advantages to this technique.
First, shooting on a green screen instead of on-location saves time. Because the background added is digitally generated, there is no need to travel beyond the studio to achieve a desired setting. In addition to saving time, this is almost much more cost effective.
Filming and photographing in a studio instead of on-location ensures that the shoot will not be delayed for reasons beyond the the filmmakers' control, such as weather conditions, availability of certain locations, etc. The controlled environment provided by a green screen studio ensures that external noise; lighting conditions, etc. do not have to be factored into the filming process.
For more information like this, or for questions about how you can produce your green screen videos at Gearshift, contact us at 877-477-STUDIO.
What's the difference between commercials on television and marketing videos on my website?
There is one major difference between television ads and website video content: what the viewer expects. Viewers turn on the television and expect to see advertisements. They expect the advertisement to have an agenda and a point and to ask them to buy something. Your web video content cannot always share these aspects with a television commercial because people expect more from your website.
When someone goes to your website, they are most likely hoping to find information or the answer to a question. If you are a restaurant, for example, visitors want to see vivid content displaying your menu and location. If your web videos are quality content that help the viewer by providing information or answering a question, then you have just shown the viewer why they should hire you - instead of simply telling them to do so in an advertisement. Your videos can communicate your capabilities, your personality, and your knowledge of your field.
Of course, sometimes the lines blur a bit, and your web videos will have advertising elements. Keep in mind, though, that the web isn't just another screen to advertise on. Your helpful website and involvement in social media can help form a relationship between your business and your viewers. For instance, when we produce marketing videos for lawyers, we may have them explain steps someone should take immediately following a car accident. This information is helpful to the viewers and shows how competent the attorney is. This is how to sell yourself in a way no other marketing medium can provide.
To get started with your web video campaign, give Gearshift TV a call at 1.877.477.STUDIO today.
What's the Difference between Website SEO and YouTube SEO?
In order the understand the difference between Website SEO (search engine optimization) and YouTube SEO, it is important to understand that your videos can help your website itself and not just your YouTube channel. Professional video marketing necessitates a wise SEO strategy, and understanding the importance of optimizing for both websites and YouTube is critical to success on search engines.
Of course, everyone wants their YouTube campaign to go well. YouTube is an awesome marketing tool, especially since it sits directly behind Google as the world's second largest search engine. You can optimize your videos for YouTube and attract a lot of attention to your YouTube channel, but this is not the only function your web videos can serve. You can also put your web videos to work optimizing your own website.
Optimizing your web videos for your own website can help your Google search results. The reason for this is that Google loves diverse, interesting content. Video can also be social and shared on lots of social networking sites, bringing massive SEO benefit to your site. The first priority is not always YouTube, although YouTube is important. In fact, optimizing your videos on your website before you optimize for YouTube may be the most effective SEO method for your business.
DC video production firm Gearshift specializes in not only professional video production but also SEO. We can film your videos, and we can also give them the best chance of being found online. Give us a call at 1.877.477.STUDIO to learn more.
Why Is a Green Screen Green?
If you have been looking for a green screen in Washington DC, you may be wondering why the screen is green in the first place. The process of filming you in front of a green screen to create an artificial background is called "chroma keying." In the chroma keying process, green color is captured by the camera and canceled out by a chroma key device, thus making space for a virtual background.
This process can be performed with any color, but green is preferred because:
- Green is one of the furthest colors from skin tone. This prevents your skin from being canceled out in the final video.
- Modern digital cameras are highly sensitive to green, which allows for a cleaner image.
- Green is an uncommon clothing color, which prevents clothes from being canceled out by the chroma key device.
If your skin were the same color as the green screen, your skin would disappear in the video and the background would show in its place! This is why newscasters and weathermen need to be careful in their wardrobe selection. At times, you may notice parts of their outfit disappear, especially since news channels often use a blue background instead of green.
Can I Use Web Video to Answer Frequently Asked Questions?
The answer is yes! You can use Web video to answer frequently asked questions. Web videos are usually the preferred choice among consumers compared to text. Reading is still popular, but nothing demands attention like a well made video, which is why DC area video production firms have been helping local businesses make the switch.
Many business owners spend their valuable time answering frequently asked questions even though they have a FAQ section on their website. Many consumers are aware of the FAQ section of a website but just don't want to deal with searching for answers.
You can save valuable time for you and your staff by answering common questions with video. This is a great way to inform people about your business while keeping them entertained. You're also offering a more personable approach to customer service - people will see that you took the time to answer their questions in a more thoughtful manner.
If you feel like you spend too much time answering commonly asked questions and want to find out more about using Web video instead, call us for a consultation at 877-477-STUDIO and let us explain the benefits of video for your business. Don't forget to order a copy of our free Video Marketing DVD today.
What's the Difference Between 1080p and 1080i?
Let's start by rephrasing the question to "which is better?". The short and easy answer is "1080p". Gearshift can produce your videos in 1080p, 720p, or any other resolution.
Technically, the resolution is the same for both 1080p and 1080i (both displaying 1920x1080 pixels on the screen). The difference is the "p" and "i". The "p" is for "progressive" scan meaning each picture is painted top to bottom in one scan. The "i" stands for "interlaced" scan; these pictures are painted sequentially which means that odd numbered lines are painted first then even numbered lines second, making this a two step process.
Progressive scan is preferred because its one step process (able to paint the picture quicker than interlaced) produces smoother motion, particularly for fast paced action such as sports (OK, just the ones that make you sweat). Because of its longer processing time, interlaced scans can lag behind the data its receiving and cause the picture to appear blurry. High definition television broadcasts are in 1080i or 720p (progressive scan of 1280x720 pixels). The company will usually broadcast fast paced sports in 720p and slower content in 1080i. If you thought you've noticed a difference between sports and a sitcom, you could be right. They may have been broadcast in different resolutions.
In reality, 1080p stands alone. 1080i is more comparable to 720p. Manufacturers market their products as 1080i/720p (notice the "slash"). This means that the TV is "capable" of receiving 1080i signals but converts it to 720p, so try not to fall for this gimmick. Get started on your videos by contacting us toll free at 877-477-STUDIO for a consultation, and be sure to order a copy of our free Video Marketing DVD today.
What Is a Virtual Set?
A virtual set is a television studio which allows the background to be manipulated in real time. A virtual set will permit you to alter the background or setting with digital graphics- your imagination is the limit. Virginia video production company Gearshift has the expertise to create the virtual set of your choosing.
A virtual set can place the people in your video into a news room, a courtroom, or even outer space! Here are some of the great benefits to using a virtual set:
- Quicker and easier to set up than real sets.
- Create your own virtual set or select one from a variety of professionally custom made sets.
- You can quickly switch digital sets when you want to.
- You can add people to your videos as though they are on the set with you.
- Virtual sets also "act" like the real thing. Despite the set being virtual, you can still have multiple camera angles and superimpose additional images onto the virtual set
Virtual sets are becoming more common as graphics technology improves. Computer graphics are now able to render scenes with incredible realism. Let us help you create your custom virtual set. Call us today at 877-477-STUDIO. Also, be sure to order our free Video Marketing DVD.
How do I increase viewership regarding my online videos?
The major challenge in online video marketing is not necessarily in producing the video itself, but in getting people to actually view it. Regardless of how well your video was produced, if a great marketing strategy is absent, you may be left wondering what went wrong.
Here is one of the best kept secrets to a successful video campaign: attach a celebrity name to your video. Because celebrities are amongst the most frequently searched for, associating a celebrity name to your video can greatly enhance your video's search ranking. The best advice is to "name-drop" a celebrity who has used or advertised services to those you currently offer. This will enable you to "ride the celebrity wave" and group your video with the celebrity's name. The hope associated with this strategy is that when a user searches for a specific celebrity, your video associated with that celebrity's name will appear higher on the search results list.
High profile celebrities, just like ordinary people, have employed legal services from time to time. The celebrities require many of the same legal services and undergo many of the same problems that everyday people need and experience. So, what better way to gain additional viewership than to attach a celebrity name to your video!
Gaining viewership can be challenging, but it is not impossible by any means. We understand this and have unique strategies to offer you. Online video marketing constantly undergoes changes and transformations due to rapidly changing technology. Do not fall behind the trend; it can be difficult to recover. Call us toll free at 877-477-STUDIO for a consultation today.
Are there copyright issues when integrating audio with video, and then publishing the content on the web?
The short answer is, "Yes." Copyright laws exist to protect the rights of the artist by ensuring that nobody can profit from, distribute, or otherwise use someone else's music, without first receiving proper permission. Crediting the artist is simply not enough. Rather, before using such content to advance your own agenda, permission must be granted from copyright holders (note: these are not always the actual artists). Multiple people or entities-songwriters, producers, record labels, or private estates-may hold the rights to any given recording.
So, proceed with caution. Penalties for copyright infringement can be severe. At a minimum, those who are guilty of violating copyright law will see their content blocked from view until it is altogether removed from the public eye. Transgressors can also be issued fines totaling as much as $250,000. Further, violators can even be sued by the copyright owners. If any money was made from illegal use of copyrighted material, owners may be entitled to damages. People can even spend five years in jail for violating the laws, depending on the severity of the infringement!
That said, there are still legal options available when it comes to using music in videos published on the web. The newest option is a free service provided by YouTube, called AudioSwap. YouTube users can employ the new feature to integrate audio into their videos by selecting from a catalog of popular songs that are licensed for use. If a user wishes to venture outside of the pre-approved list, stock and royalty-free audio may also be purchased from a variety of online sources, usually as part of a subscription or for a nominal fee.
If you have further questions about how to produce legal, compelling videos for the web, contact Gearshift at 877-477-STUDIO. We are a DC video production company with years of experience in producing original, creative videos, which aid businesses with their online marketing ventures.
Does Gearshift photograph D.C. area business events?
Gearshift photographs a variety of business events in the D.C. area. From large scale events like four-day trade conferences to the more intimate settings of restaurants and cafes, Gearshift is flexible and experienced in the entire spectrum of business event photography.
Promotional events such as product launches and marketing photo shoots are a specialty of ours, and photography is a great way to present products on your website. We'll help you engage in a creative process from start to finish, bringing a fresh, original look to your products that cannot be replicated with amateur or stock photography.
The national capital area is a popular destination for business conferences and trade shows. Gearshift photographers understand the professionalism and personality necessary to keep events moving on schedule. Our professionals will stage and capture every important moment, while keeping people comfortable during the process. The studio also has the latest in photographic and supportive technologies that can help reduce photo processing and turnaround, allowing you to post imagery to your business website in a minimal amount of time.
Gearshift is a D.C. area photography studio based in northern Virginia. Whether in-studio or on location, inside your facilities or outdoors against a historic D.C. backdrop, our professional photographers have the experience necessary to make your business event photography shine. Contact us at 877-477-STUDIO to discuss your event and to map out your photography needs.
Does Gearshift TV provide photography services to DC businesses?
Our professional photographers have the best tools and creativity available to capture the uniqueness and style of your products, services and special gatherings. We provide a full range of photography services, including photography for product launches, corporate seminars, business galas, sports and training camps, DC nightlife, and fine dining.
Our photographers have more than 20 years experience in all genres of photography. If you have remodeled or restored your restaurant or retail space, or you have finished construction on a new headquarters, we will capture the historic detail or sleek new furnishings of your business place with our architectural photography experts. With our understanding of composition, angle and lighting, we know how to emphasize the beauty and unique design of your products.
Gearshift handles just about every type of photographic service for any DC area business. Using the most advanced cameras combined with decades of creative experience, we will deliver a photo shoot that is a cut above the rest. We will also provide you with an online photo gallery and a ZIP file of your images.
Contact Gearshift at 877-477-STUDIO to discuss a customized photography package that will be perfectly suited to your specific business needs.
Can DC area gyms and fitness clubs benefit from Web video?
Choosing a gym is a personal choice for many patrons, and fitness centers can benefit from the sense of personality that video provides. Greater awareness of the health risks associated with a sedentary lifestyle have many Americans interested in exploring a more active lifestyle. Many Americans use the Web to research ways in which they can improve their lifestyle, and video is an excellent way to introduce them to the benefits your gym provides.
Web video is an effective way to introduce your staff of personal trainers, nutritionists, physical therapists and wellness experts to prospective clients. Along with presenting your staff in a personable manner, video allows you to simultaneously show off your facilities, gym philosophy, and approach to healthy living. Showcasing group training events such as yoga and Pilates classes, as well as organized indoor sports and conditioning, can help keep customers interested and involved all year long.
Gearshift is a full-service video production studio serving the DC area. Gearshift uses the latest in photographic and video technology combined with years of creative experience.
Contact Gearshift at 877-477-STUDIO to find out more about how your gym can benefit from an effective online video campaign.
Can DC area clubs benefit from Web video?
DC, Maryland and Virginia clubs benefit from Web video in several ways. Washington, DC nightlife attracts visitors from up and down the East Coast. DC is well known for its historic sites, but it is also a city known for its independent and eclectic music scenes and edgy comic personalities.
By maintaining a visible online presence using Web video, clubs can show off their megawatt sound systems, space age lighting and sleek atmosphere in a way that is inviting and compelling. Club patrons are often searching for a new venue for a Friday night out, and video is perhaps the best way to get people talking about what your club has to offer.
Gearshift is a DC area video production studio staffed with top tier creative experts who make the most out of state of the art video equipment. They will bring an unmatched sense of style to your online video campaign. Your video campaign will capitalize on every unique aspect of your club, from parties and events to music and entertainment. Viewers will get the best possible taste of the flavors your club adds to DC nightlife. Contact Gearshift at 877-477-STUDIO to learn more.
How can restaurants take advantage of Web video?
Restaurants benefit from Web video just like any other small business. With video, you can tie together the things that make your restaurant a unique spot in which to dine, in a very inviting way. You can highlight your ingredients, your menu, your location, and your passion for a great dining experience with the depth and creativity that radio or print simply can’t deliver alone. Not to mention that the effectiveness of online marketing makes tracking your advertising dollars easy.
Whether your establishment is new to the restaurant scene or you’re expanding into new locations, an online presence will keep customers informed of what you have cooking. With the restaurant and social applications for today’s smartphones and the “checking in” feature for Facebook, more and more foot traffic is generated by putting your business online. Visibility on the Web is key to working with potential customers’ sense of spontaneity and a great video can make all the difference in choice.
Gearshift is a DC video production studio with experience in putting area restaurants on the map. We will bring creative expertise and sensibility to an online video campaign that will make the most out of your restaurant, your food, and your location - basically everything that you bring to the table!
Contact Gearshift at 877-477-STUDIO to find out more.
Do businesses need to be tracking the ROI on their Web video campaigns?
The answer is “yes”. You can, and should, track the return on investment (ROI) of your online videos. The great thing is that you can monitor the results of your Web video using real time information.
You’re not just tracking ROI and an actual cost-per-view. With online video and Web marketing, businesses have an ability to become adaptive to their customers. The ability to target demographics to location, education and professional interests helps businesses reach new customers. An understanding of who is visiting your website and seeing who clicks through your video creates its own value in terms of your advertising budget, and will help you learn how to turn new customers into repeat customers.
Gearshift is a DC area video production studio that understands that marketing campaigns should make more than sense in terms of investment. After creating an accessible, effective video,
Gearshift will provide you with the tools not only to track your ROI, but to build a Web video campaign that maximizes your marketing dollars by using easy to understand reporting and real time feedback.
Contact Gearshift at 877-477-STUDIO to learn more about a smart approach to tracking ROI.
Aren't green screens just for the weatherman?
Heck no! Your local weatherman uses a green screen everyday to show you the radar and forecast but this is just one use of a green screen. Lots of Hollywood movies use them. The movie “300” for example was shot entirely on a green screen. We use it because it provides an awesome opportunity to be flexible, creative and professional.
What if I dont feel comfortable being on camera?
That's okay! And don’t worry, you are not alone. Luckily, we have a cast of professional spokesmodels that can take your place. We will coordinate to make sure the scripts and message being relayed is accurate and you will have videos in your hands in no time. Check out our spokesmodel page for more information.
Do I need to write scripts?
We have a list of questions that we will ask you while you are on camera. These will be easy questions for you and you will have no problem hitting them out of the park. Even though they are simple to you, its vital information for your uninformed web visitors. We will make you feel comfortable and once you get warmed up, you will feel totally at ease on camera. If there are certain topics you would like to cover or would feel more comfortable with scripts, let us know and we’ll have one of our writers create them for you.
What is a Green Screen?
Gearshift TV was built around the green screen concept.
Don’t know what that is? A green screen is a screen that allows digital artists to superimpose any image they desire onto it. The most common example of green screen use is during televised weather forecast broadcasts. The meteorologist stands in front of a green (or blue) screen and points toward the correct areas. The weather map is then inserted behind him so that it appears to viewers that he's pointing at the weather patterns himself.
So essentially, Gearshift TV can shoot your video with you in front of the green screen and then alter the background of it to seamlessly integrate into your website so that it has a professional and high-quality feel - just like in the video above. Here at the studio, we guide you through the video process. It’s not a problem if you haven’t been in front of the camera before – we’re here to make you feel comfortable and create the best video that you can. Give Gearshift TV a call so we can begin converting your web visitors into clients.
What can I expect if I come in to shoot video at Gearshift TV?
We promise, you're going to have a great time shooting video at the Studio! We're going the distance to help you do the best that you can while you're in front of the camera. But to answer your question, there are a few things you can expect and things that you should do before coming in.
First, you have to schedule your shoot. If you plan to read scripts from the teleprompter, and have had your scripts pre-approved by the Gearshift TV team, we will have an edited and prepared version loaded into the teleprompter so it will scroll slowly in front of you on a screen. If you need help with scripts, please contact your sales person for assistance - we'll need at least 72 hours notice.
What should you wear? You should wear clothes clients will see you in when they meet you. you can never go wrong with a nice dark suit, white shirt and various ties. If your design is already done, think about wearing a tie that matches the colors in your design. If you are a doctor, wear your doctor jacket. If you are a contractor, wear your company shirt with your logo. You get the picture. If you need more direction, please ask your sales person for assistance. Feel free to wear a comfortable set of clothes to travel in. We have plenty of space for you to change in.
What do we have in the studio? It may seem silly, but this is important! We have a fridge with bottled water and soda, a bathroom, light make up powder, snacks, clothes rack and Internet access. Next door we have restaurants, Fed-Ex, a movie theater and a grocery store. Yes, we also have some booze if you need to take the edge off - one drink limit!
Once you've changed and freshened up and yo'ure ready to go on screen, you can expect to be filming for at least an hour. Jim, our amazingly talented cinematographer, will place you correctly in front of the green screen and will adjust the lighting and sound. Once you're placed and ready to go, the process will move along fairly quickly. Jim will ask you questions regarding your practice areas or services to get you comfortable and talking. Be sure to answer these questions in complete sentences, because the question itself will not be shown or asked in the video for viewers to see. The purpose of doing this without preparing a script is to have you engage viewers in a conversational and relaxed manner; reading a script could come across sounding rehearsed. People want to work with professionals they feel comfortable with and whom they feel understands their situation, so that's what we're going to give them.
After answering lots and lots of questions, we'll ask you next what else you want to talk about in your videos. Give this some thought before you come: when your clients call you or come in for a consultation, what questions do they ask? Do you know why people are coming to your website? What do your potential clients want to know? If you can answer this while they're visiting your website, you'll prove that you're a knowledgeable source of information and this will get them to pick up the phone and contact you.
That's all! And remember, our clients tend to do very well on camera despite the fact that most of them have never been on screen before. Even if you aren't perfect, your website visitors aren't expecting perfection, they're expecting answers to their questions. The trick is to take a deep breath and to relax.
And finally, you will not like your own videos. You are your worst critic, but so are your spouse and your children. This is marketing, and you are not trying to sell to them. For the most part, everyone that will see these videos will have never met you. The most important thing is to deliver good information relating to how you can help them. Trust us on this!
See you in the studio!
How Do I Make Videos That People Will Actually Want To Watch?
Today my wife had the television on and the program was one of those old classic black and white movies. What a treat to watch a master film editor work. The scenes built on the story and didn’t have a bunch of graphic pictures that you see in today’s movies.
That got me to thinking. Today many of the “video experts” tell you that the way to make good looking video is to watch what everyone is doing today on TV.
But that’s wrong. Just because someone has a video editing suite in their computer doesn’t make them video editors. In fact, all it does is make everyone think that it takes no brains to become an editor. Just take your raw video, cut out some scenes, add fancy transitions, paste in some credits, and you’re done.
But watch an older movie and see how the edit builds on the story. No fancy transitions between scenes. The transitions are just fades and cuts.
I was privileged to spend a month with an expert, my friend Leonard S. Smith, Jr., an Emmy winning member of the Directors Guild of America. We spent one full month editing thirteen hours of video into a 40-minute video. It was truly magic to see how he worked. And often we only got one or two minutes of finished video in a day!
Today you can get hundreds of transitions because some software programmer figured out how to write the code. But having those transition doesn’t make them work.
I know, you see them all the time on TV.
Here's a question to ponder: about those geometric transitions you see on TV, are they there because of good editing or because the “editor” had so many that he/she just had to use them?